# Component-wise Dirichlet BC

## Contents

# Component-wise Dirichlet BC¶

Author: Jørgen S. Dokken

In this section, we will learn how to prescribe Dirichlet boundary conditions on a component of your unknown \(u_h\).
We will illustrate the problem using a `VectorElement`

. However, the method generalizes to any `MixedElement`

.

We will use a slightly modified version of the linear elasticity demo, namely $\( -\nabla \cdot \sigma (u) = f\quad \text{in } \Omega, \)$

We will consider a two dimensional box spanning \([0,L]\times[0,H]\), where \(\partial\Omega_N\) is the left and right side of the beam, \(\partial\Omega_D\) the bottom of the beam, while \(\partial\Omega_{Dx}\) is the right side of the beam. We will prescribe a displacement \(u_x=0\) on the right side of the beam, while the beam is being deformed under its own weight. The sides of the box is traction free.

```
L = 1
H = 1.3
lambda_ = 1.25
mu = 1
rho = 1
g = 1
```

As in the previous demos, we define our mesh and function space. We will create a `ufl.VectorElement`

to create a two dimensional vector space.

```
from dolfinx.fem import (Constant, dirichletbc, Function, FunctionSpace, LinearProblem, locate_dofs_geometrical,
locate_dofs_topological)
from dolfinx.mesh import CellType, create_rectangle, locate_entities_boundary
from ufl import Identity, Measure, TestFunction, TrialFunction, VectorElement, dot, dx, inner, grad, nabla_div, sym
from mpi4py import MPI
from petsc4py.PETSc import ScalarType
import numpy as np
mesh = create_rectangle(MPI.COMM_WORLD, np.array([[0,0],[L, H]]), [30,30], cell_type=CellType.triangle)
element = VectorElement("CG", mesh.ufl_cell(), 1)
V = FunctionSpace(mesh, element)
```

## Boundary conditions¶

As we would like to clamp the boundary at \(x=0\), we do this by using a marker function, we use `dolfinx.fem.locate_dofs_geometrical`

to identify the relevant degrees of freedom.

```
def clamped_boundary(x):
return np.isclose(x[1], 0)
u_zero = np.array((0,)*mesh.geometry.dim, dtype=ScalarType)
bc = dirichletbc(u_zero, locate_dofs_geometrical(V, clamped_boundary), V)
```

Next we would like to constrain the \(x\)-component of our solution at \(x=L\) to \(0\). We start by creating the sub space only containing the \(x\) -component.

Next, we locate the degrees of freedom on the top boundary. However, as the boundary condition is in a sub space of our solution, we need to supply both the parent space \(V\) and the sub space \(V_0\) to `dolfinx.locate_dofs_topological`

.

```
def right(x):
return np.logical_and(np.isclose(x[0], L), x[1] < H)
boundary_facets = locate_entities_boundary(mesh, mesh.topology.dim-1, right)
boundary_dofs_x = locate_dofs_topological(V.sub(0), mesh.topology.dim-1, boundary_facets)
```

We can now create our Dirichlet condition

```
bcx = dirichletbc(ScalarType(0), boundary_dofs_x, V.sub(0))
bcs = [bc, bcx]
```

As we want the traction \(T\) over the remaining boundary to be \(0\), we create a `dolfinx.Constant`

```
T = Constant(mesh, ScalarType((0, 0)))
```

We also want to specify the integration measure \(\mathrm{d}s\), which should be the integral over the boundary of our domain. We do this by using `ufl`

, and its built in integration measures

```
ds = Measure("ds", domain=mesh)
```

## Variational formulation¶

We are now ready to create our variational formulation in close to mathematical syntax, as for the previous problems.

```
def epsilon(u):
return sym(grad(u))
def sigma(u):
return lambda_ * nabla_div(u) * Identity(u.geometric_dimension()) + 2*mu*epsilon(u)
u = TrialFunction(V)
v = TestFunction(V)
f = Constant(mesh, ScalarType((0, -rho*g)))
a = inner(sigma(u), epsilon(v)) * dx
L = dot(f, v) * dx + dot(T, v) * ds
```

## Solve the linear variational problem¶

As in the previous demos, we assemble the matrix and right hand side vector and use PETSc to solve our variational problem

```
problem = LinearProblem(a, L, bcs=bcs, petsc_options={"ksp_type": "preonly", "pc_type": "lu"})
uh = problem.solve()
```

## Visualization¶

```
import pyvista
pyvista.set_jupyter_backend("pythreejs")
from dolfinx.plot import create_vtk_topology
# Create plotter and pyvista grid
p = pyvista.Plotter()
topology, cell_types = create_vtk_topology(mesh, mesh.topology.dim)
grid = pyvista.UnstructuredGrid(topology, cell_types, mesh.geometry.x)
# Attach vector values to grid and warp grid by vector
vals_2D = uh.compute_point_values().real
vals = np.zeros((vals_2D.shape[0], 3))
vals[:,:2] = vals_2D
grid["u"] = vals
actor_0 = p.add_mesh(grid, style="wireframe", color="k")
warped = grid.warp_by_vector("u", factor=1.5)
actor_1 = p.add_mesh(warped, show_edges=True)
p.view_xy()
if not pyvista.OFF_SCREEN:
p.show()
else:
pyvista.start_xvfb()
fig_array = p.screenshot(f"component.png")
```