A known analytical solution

Author: Jørgen S. Dokken

Just as for the Poisson problem, we construct a test problem which makes it easy to determine if the calculations are correct.

Since we know that our first-order time-stepping scheme is exact for linear functions, we create a problem which has linear variation in time. We combine this with a quadratic variation in space. Therefore, we choose the analytical solution to be

(27)\[\begin{align} u = 1 + x^2+\alpha y^2 + \beta t \end{align}\]

which yields a function whose computed values at the degrees of freedom will be exact, regardless of the mesh size and \(\Delta t\) as long as the mesh is uniformly partitioned. By inserting this into our original PDE, we find that the right hand side \(f=\beta-2-2\alpha\). The boundary value \(u_d(x,y,t)=1+x^2+\alpha y^2 + \beta t\) and the initial value \(u_0(x,y)=1+x^2+\alpha y^2\).

We start by defining the temporal discretization parameters, along with the parameters for \(\alpha\) and \(\beta\).

t = 0 # Start time
T = 2 # End time
num_steps = 20 # Number of time steps
dt = (T-t)/num_steps # Time step size
alpha = 3
beta = 1.2

As for the previous problem, we define the mesh and appropriate function spaces.

import numpy
from dolfinx import fem
from dolfinx.mesh import CellType, create_unit_square, locate_entities_boundary
from mpi4py import MPI
from petsc4py import PETSc

nx, ny = 5, 5
mesh = create_unit_square(MPI.COMM_WORLD, nx, ny, CellType.triangle)
V = fem.FunctionSpace(mesh, ("CG", 1))

Defining the exact solution

As in the membrane problem, we create a Python-class to resemble the exact solution

class exact_solution():
    def __init__(self, alpha, beta, t):
        self.alpha = alpha
        self.beta = beta
        self.t = t
    def __call__(self, x):
        return 1 + x[0]**2 + self.alpha * x[1]**2 + self.beta * self.t
u_exact = exact_solution(alpha, beta, t)

Defining the boundary condition

As in the previous chapters, we define a Dirichlet boundary condition over the whole boundary

u_D = fem.Function(V)
fdim = mesh.topology.dim - 1
boundary_facets = locate_entities_boundary(
    mesh, fdim, lambda x: numpy.full(x.shape[1], True, dtype=bool))
bc = fem.dirichletbc(u_D, fem.locate_dofs_topological(V, fdim, boundary_facets))

Defining the variational formualation

As we have set \(t=0\) in u_exact, we can reuse this variable to obtain \(u_n\) for the first time step.

u_n = fem.Function(V)

As \(f\) is a constant independent of \(t\), we can define it as a constant.

f = fem.Constant(mesh, beta - 2 - 2 * alpha)

We can now create our variational formulation, with the bilinear form a and linear form L.

import ufl
u, v = ufl.TrialFunction(V), ufl.TestFunction(V)
F = u*v*ufl.dx + dt*ufl.dot(ufl.grad(u), ufl.grad(v))*ufl.dx - (u_n + dt*f)*v*ufl.dx
a = fem.form(ufl.lhs(F))
L = fem.form(ufl.rhs(F))

Create the matrix and vector for the linear problem

To ensure that we are solving the variational problem efficiently, we will create several structures which can reuse data, such as matrix sparisty patterns. Especially note as the bilinear form a is independent of time, we only need to assemble the matrix once.

A = fem.assemble_matrix(a, bcs=[bc])
b = fem.create_vector(L)
uh = fem.Function(V)

Define a linear variational solver

We will use PETSc to solve the resulting linear algebra problem. We use the Python-API petsc4py to define the solver. We will use a linear solver.

solver = PETSc.KSP().create(mesh.comm)

Solving the time-dependent problem

With these structures in place, we crete our time-stepping loop. In this loop, we first update the Dirichlet boundary condition by interpolating the updated expression u_exact into V. The next step is to re-assemble the vector b, with the update u_n. Then, we need to apply the boundary condition to this vector. We do this by using the lifting operation, which applies the boundary condition such that symmetry of the matrix is preserved. Then we solve the problem using PETSc and update u_n with the data from uh.

for n in range(num_steps):
    # Update Diriclet boundary condition 
    # Update the right hand side reusing the initial vector
    with b.localForm() as loc_b:
    fem.assemble_vector(b, L)
    # Apply Dirichlet boundary condition to the vector
    fem.apply_lifting(b, [a], [[bc]])
    b.ghostUpdate(addv=PETSc.InsertMode.ADD_VALUES, mode=PETSc.ScatterMode.REVERSE)
    fem.set_bc(b, [bc])

    # Solve linear problem
    solver.solve(b, uh.vector)

    # Update solution at previous time step (u_n)
    with uh.vector.localForm() as loc, u_n.vector.localForm() as loc_n:

Verifying the numerical solution

As in the first chapter, we compute the L2-error and the error at the mesh vertices for the last time step. to verify our implementation.

# Compute L2 error and error at nodes
V_ex = fem.FunctionSpace(mesh, ("CG", 2))
u_ex = fem.Function(V_ex)
error_L2 = numpy.sqrt(mesh.comm.allreduce(fem.assemble_scalar(fem.form((uh - u_ex)**2 * ufl.dx)), op=MPI.SUM))
if mesh.comm.rank == 0:
    print(f"L2-error: {error_L2:.2e}")

# Compute values at mesh vertices
u_vertex_values = uh.compute_point_values()
u_ex_vertex_values = u_ex.compute_point_values()
error_max = mesh.comm.allreduce(numpy.max(numpy.abs(u_vertex_values - u_ex_vertex_values)), op=MPI.MAX)
if mesh.comm.rank == 0:
    print(f"Error_max: {error_max:.2e}")
L2-error: 2.83e-02
Error_max: 3.55e-15